The White-naped crane (Grus vipio) prefers drier marshlands than those occupied by its relative, the red-crowned crane. It is also more tolerant of farmland. The breeding range of the species includes only the wetlands of the Amur-Heilong River in Mongolia, China, and Russia. The global population is about 5,500. White-naped cranes migrate from the Amur-Heilong basin to wintering grounds at Poyang Lake in east-central China, the Korean Peninsula, and Kyushu Island in Japan
White-naped crane is listed in the Russian Red Book and IUCN Redlist as Vulnerable. Nesting habitats are protected in Khingansky, Khankaisky, and Daursky Zapovedniks, and in many refuges in Russia; in Dalaihu, Huihe, Zhalong, Xinkaihu and other reserves in China; and in Mongol-Daguur, Ugtam, and Onon-Balj protected areas in Mongolia. Depending on the particular phase of the local climatic cycle, birds regularly move between different breeding areas. The main threats are grass fires, human disturbance, and conversion of habitats to farmland.